Ceci est une version archivée de ABrooks à 2018-12-04 12:05:26.

Interview Andrew Brooks

1) Mélanie (0' --> 10'25)
He is a coral fish biologist which means he studies the interactions between fish and corals. He isn’t a coral reef biologist. He thinks that he is very lucky to do this work. He had colleagues who were working in a marine research center, who taught he might be interested by a research project. He started this project in 2000. In 2004, he had a grant opportunity from the national sciences foundation to develop a center for the study of coral reef. They proposed to put it on the island of Moorea. Since 2004, he is associated with Moorea coral reef LTER long term ecological research in French Polynesia.

Corals reefs face many dangers both global and local. Dangers associated with climate change like warmer sea water temperature and lower pH. He named these dangers “global stressors” which have effects on corals everywhere in the world.

Coral is an animal which has in its tissues plants named Zooxanthellae. When the temperature of water rises the relation between algae and animals become complicated. Algea leave the coral which makes it difficult for the coral to feed. Coral is a symbiosis between animals and plants. Plants make photosynthesis which generates food for the coral. Corals provide shelters for algea. When algea leave the coral, it is called “coral bleaching” because coral become white. In effect, it is the plants which give their colours to the corals. If temperature drops algea can come back to the corals. A bleach coral it’s not necessarily a dead coral. If the temperature of water rises during a short time, the coral can always recover the algea. But if the temperature of water rises during a long time, the coral will die. Unfortunately nowadays the rise of temperature doesn’t get lower. It is complicated to fight against the global stressors on the local scale.

To protect it, the coral extract calcium in the water. This calcium mixed with CO2 makes a product called calcium carbonate. The coral uses the calcium carbonate to make it skeleton. This is why the coral is hard and not soft. The formation of this product depends on the pH of water. If the pH drops the water become acid and the formation of it skeleton is more complicated. If the drop of pH of water continues, the researchers think that corals might look like a jellyfish because they will not be able to make its skeleton.

2) Qui ? (10'25 --> 18'25)
Interview 1:
_”It is the same thing when you have toxic molecules in the water like oxybenzone, I mean does it kill the coral straight away or its take time and maybe if you take off the molecule of the water you can came back or something like that ?”
_”Something like sunscreen, which contains oxyBenzone, it,a called local stresser because.it doesn't impact the hole globe, it only impact areas. So you can.imagine a.place straight away because ten of thousand of visitors everyday who putting sunscreen all over and going to the water. The concentration of those chemicals in the sunscreen added to the warm of the water has a main impact in the coral.
If the temperature of the water rise and the ph is not too low especially because of the chemicals, corals can break down because oxybenzone capture the sunray. And its slowly diffused out.of a larger area in the ocean. It's difficult for the coral came back because the global conditions has still corrupted.
If the temperature, the ph and the sunlight are ok, there is.not others stresser, so it's possible to restore the reef if we control the global stresser”

_”why did you choose to work in edd”

_”it's one thing that I do as a matter on.my job, but I'm a scientist and you can read my.papers.
That's not a usual promote sight to be studies by very small numbers of people, in.very specific typical deals.
If we really want an impact and we want that the research that we do to be vindicated, to.be.meaningful,to be as a people as a society and we have to.present this information in the way that society can access it and making sure that that in a educational process, children can talked with science and also is term of outreach to the general public.
So more and more I think you will see scientist engaged and educated on outreach to make a work with result to know the society.
We have to change and do something that is better for.coral reef and we have to share the.information to the general public to those ten thousand of people to show up the trouble.”

_”So it is your job to raise a warning among people like children or tourist or people? It.is a part of your job?

_”it's a significant part of my job and we do that in several way. For education we work with local teachers to develop materials and making new classrooms for demonstration of for.lessons plan. We incorporate informations about coral.reefs into their lesson. They should know what ecosystem is and what's the components of an ecosystem and we give the.materials to use for demonstration to make those lesson.
We also bring children to university and we give them series of bleachers, we talk about development research that we do.They do exercise with aquarium display and compare the local environment and talk about the coral in California.
So we want get the link between the different ecosystem. We give tours too and we work with many of coral corporate.

3) Chloé (18'25 --> 27'42)

The research station where I work gives tours in French Polynesia as an outreach cultural center. We work with local politicians to incorporate their ancestral learning and teaching about fishing. And we see how it impact local coral reefs. Scientific research match with what is has been known for centuries by their ancestors. But one of the things we found is that fisher like to fish on species that actually eat marine plants (algeas). It is not a problem usually but when their is a disturbance in the coral reef (cyclone, pollution), algeas can take over and the coral reef becomes an algeas reef. Algeas cover everything. So if you protect fishes that eat algeas, you let the space open and give the opportunity to baby corals to grow and rebuild the reef. The problem is overfishing. Politicians knew this and usually when the local chief felt that the reef is threatened, he says « Fishing in this area is tabou » and forbid fishing. That would permit those fish to control algaes and the reef to recover. By coming, our politicians impacted the ability of chieves to play their role and so impacted the ability of fishes to protect the reef. That’s why we ended up needing marine protected areas. The problem is that it is a fixed area when you would like to move it depending on which part of the reef is threatened. It is very hard in modern societies to do that and make people understand why it is important to protect these areas and stop fishing there. That’s what politicians are not very good at because it involves economic activites and problems with local populations. Unfortunately, modern fishing methods are now so efficient, it is possible to catch almost everything everywhere. And we catch a lot of fishes at the same time because we now have ways to keep them frem (freezer). Before it was difficult to catch fishes living in reefs and it didn’t make sense to catch a fish you can’t eat or keep fresh, it was a natural way to regulate fishing. It explains why we overfish now. And that is because it is so easy to overfish that it is important to have protected areas. But the difficulty is to establish them, implement them, maintain them and proove to the local people that it is actually beneficial to them. It is where outreach and education come up. You can’t just say to people « you can’t fish here anymore, it is forbidden », they will be very angry. The thing is you need to tell them « Ok you can’t fish here anymore but it will permit you to fish in a different place for a longer period of time or to catch more fish or larger fish », you need to give them a reason. People have no information and unfortunately in California and France, it seems to be the way how governments operate. They come in, they commission a study, they establish a protected marine area and they leave. They miss the last step. That is what we try to do with our educational program, to do this last step and put people ahead instead of letting them behind.

4) Moi (27'42 --> 39')
27’42 - 32’33 : restoration of reefs, a solution on local scales ?

This is not yet end !!!

On the sequence Andrew Brooks we talk about solution local scales of
restoration of reefs .
he gives us his opinion is sharing.
he think it’s good solution but also it’s bad solution.
he compare the reefs to trees.
It is possible to create the “ super coral” the goal it’s resist to the disease and the warm. It’s solution to low the ph.

33’30 : do you have questions for us ? ( j'ai essayé mais j'ai pas saisie tous car il y a un soucis au niveau du son et que j'ai trop de mal en anglais :
Why we were interested in sunscreen problem
contact in Hawaii