Southern countries' agriculture



Welcome in our page !

Climate change touchs everyone all around the world, but most impacts are on poor countries. That's why we decide to focus on "agriculture in the world" and more specifically, on Southern countries' agriculture.

We choose to talk about four countries in two different continents which are Africa (with Senegal and Tunisia) and South America (with Ecuador and Bolivia).

We wonder about :
How farmers manage to face climate change ?
What kind of solutions could be planned ?
What sort of adaptations to climate change are the most efficient in Africa and South America ?

In the first part, we introduce the topic with concrete examples of adaptations in Senegal and Tunisia. Then, we will continue with Bolivia and Ecuador (=counterexample).
Finally, we will explain what our thoughts about this topic are.

Good reading !


Contents

I) Climate change's adaptations in AFRICA.
1. Green wall in Sahara.
2. Crop's solutions in Senegal.


II) Climate change's adaptations in SOUTH AMERICA.
1. Crop's solutions in Bolivia.
2. Water use in Ecuador.


image Southen_Countries_Agriculture.png (0.1MB)
MINDSET (mylène)




I) Climate change's adaptations in AFRICA.

1. Green wall in Sahara. (Mylène)

Doc 1 : Why is Africa building a Great Green Wall ?

Vidéo clip by BBC NEWS

Keywords :
- Desertification : the desertification means/is the progress of sahara desert. It causes lots of consequences. Indeed, the soil is degraded, and this degradation makes unusable the territory becoming arid.
- Oasis village : a place in the desert with water and plants , this place is rare and we need to preserve this place
- Climate change : changes are the world’s weather and as a result of human activity increasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
- Sahara : arid area localized in Africa north composed of sand, stone, mountains and plains. This arid area represents 30% of surface of Africa. It’s the biggest arid expanse in the world
- Land erosion : is a naturally process that can be exacerbated by human activities and is the wearing away of the land surface by physical forces such as rainfall, water and wind
- Palm tree : a kind of tree that grows in tropical and arid regions and has a straight trunk and many large leaves at the top of the trunk. In Africa this tree has a role of windbreak for fight against wearing away by the wind
- Salt resistant plants : in an arid area, the sandy soil is permeable, so the phreatic table increase. When temperatures are increasing, phreatic table evaporate and leave a layer of salt on the topsoil. We have to find plants which resist to salt soil
- Green wall : a project by UN which wants to build a green wall of trees across the African continent, spanning thousands of kilometres between Senegal and Djibouti. Many people planted palm trees, acacia, moringa...



2. Crop's solutions in Senegal. (Aurélie)

Doc 2 : Senegal's Farmers Reap Rewards of Climate-Smart Agriculture.

Keywords :
- Climate-smart agriculture : is a type of agriculture which is capable of replying to climate change in a sustainable way.
- Farming techniques : bring together all tools and methods which permit farming production.
- Climate change : is the modification of weather features wich result in extreme events such as droughts or floods. It has a consequence on crops and more particularly on their yield.
- Fertilizers : are organic or mineral matters which increase soil' fertility.
- Plant variety : is a set of plants wich are selected and cultivated for characters which reply to farmers' needs.
- Harvest / Yield : is the product of the land (per unit of area), but it's also a source of food and income for farmers. It can hugely affects the resilience of farms.
- Food : gathers all the production farmers are fighting to generate in order to feed thermselves and also the world.
- Resilience : is the capacity of production systems to resist hazards (climate change for instance) in order to ensure their sustainability.



II) Climate change's adaptations in SOUTH AMERICA.

1. Crop's solutions in Bolivia. (Aurélie)

Doc 3 : Bolivia : Climate Knowledge from the Ancestors.

Keywords :
- Crops : are plants which are grown in order to have a production in quantity and in quality.
- Ancestral knowledge : are capacities, abilities and aptitudes acquired by previous generations.
- Tools : are materials or methods which are rolled out in order to meet a wait.
- Soil regeneration : gathers all process to improve the quality and the fertility of agricultural soils.
- Water use : gathers all ways to manage the water resource.

2. Water use in Ecuador. (Lucille)

Doc 4 : https://www.globalcitizenyear.org/updates/climate-change-in-ecuador/

Keywords :
- Illescas : the largest agricultural region in Ecuador
- Drought : aridness, not water. It's the first cause of crops failing
- Crops failing : it's equal to harvest. The crops is the single income for Illescas families.
- Global warming : it's the first consequence of greenhouse gas.
- Greenhouse gas : It's gas that we leave with our pollution (cars, factories).
- Landslides : Ecuador have a tropical weather, and downpour are fast and violent. It's catastrophic for farmes.
- Livestock : In Ecuador, most of the farms are little, they produce just gardening and breeding with little livestock (cows, lamas).
- Hydropower production : Ecuador is the country more most rivers per square kilometer than anywhere in the world. The gouvernment dicided to use river in economy with hydrolic installations.
- Water shortage : It's like drought, insufficiency of water


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Sandhara PUB !!





image palm_tree.jpg (0.1MB)